Effect of Die Materials on Marginal and Internal Adaptation of Zirconia Copings: An In Vitro Study

The Open Dentistry Journal 31 December 2021 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874210602115010708



Close adaptation of cemented CAD/CAM restorations to their abutments is highly dependent on precise impressions and accurate replicas of teeth and adjacent oral tissues. This in-vitro study compared the effect of two die materials, as physical replicas of prepared teeth, on internal and marginal adaptations of zirconia copings to their corresponding abutments.

Materials and Methods:

A virtual model simulating a prepared premolar was designed and used for the milling of thirty identical metal models. Impression was taken of all models by Polyvinyl siloxane material. Fifteen impressions were poured in with Type IV stone and the other fifteen with polyurethane resin to make dies. All dies were scanned, and for each of them, zirconia coping was designed and milled. The copings were cemented to their corresponding metal models. Marginal gap between each coping and its metal model was measured at 20 points with a stereomicroscope (×60). Then the specimens were sectioned into two halves, and the internal gap was measured at seven points, including right and left cervico-axial, mid-axial, occluso-axial, and mid-occlusal. The data were analyzed with an independent T-test and repeated measure ANOVA at a 95% confidence level (p<0.05).


Mean value of marginal gap for Type IV stone and Exakto-Form groups were 54.31 ± 4.11 μm and 56.25 ± 4.24 μm, respectively. Mean values of the internal gaps for both groups ranged from 48 μm to 120 μm.


Based on the results of this study, an internal and marginal adaptation of zirconia copings designed on digitized polyurethane and Type IV stone dies are clinically acceptable.

Keywords: CAD/CAM restorations, Die materials, Polyurethane resin, Type IV stone, Internal adaptation , Marginal adaptation.
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