Physicochemical Properties of Torus Mandibularis and Palatinus Indicate a Source of Autogenous Bone Graft

Martin Luis S. Redor1, Rui Zhang2, Natthamet Wongsirichat1, 3, Ratchapin Laovanitch Srisatjaluk4, Teeranut Chaiyasamut1, Dutmanee Seriwatanachai2, *
1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand
2 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand
3 International College of Dentistry, Walailak University International College of Dentistry, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand
4 Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand

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© 2021 Redor et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand;



There has been extensive research on bone substitutes and autogenous bone; however, little is known about their physical and chemical characteristics of torus mandibularis and palatinus. In the present study, the physical and chemical properties of tori bone and bone graft substitutes were examined. Microbial contamination of torus bone collected during surgery was also investigated.


To investigate the physical and chemical properties of torus mandibularis and torus palatinus, and the microbial contamination of tori bone collected during surgery.

Materials and Methods:

Torus mandibularis and palatinus were collected from healthy patients by regular surgical procedure via bone collector and a stringent aspiration protocol. Physicochemical properties such as surface structure, elemental components and the crystalline structure of tori and common bone grafting substitutes (OraGRAFT, BioOss, Cerabone) were examined via SEM-EDS, X-Ray Diffractometry analysis, and calcium dissolution assay. The bacterial morphology and gram staining from the torus samples after the surgery were analyzed.


The surface structure of tori bone differed greatly from that of bone graft substitutes. An irregular and rough surface structure was found for tori, while bone graft substitutes presented a smooth but dry pattern. Elements found within tori were similar to those within bone graft substitutes; in all cases, carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium were seen. All samples showed high crystallinity, with the highest value in Cerabone, followed by Bio-oss, torus mandibularis, torus palatinus, and Oragraft. Calcium dissolution was highest on the first day in tori samples, whereas it was constantly released until the seventh day in other bone grafts. The microbial contamination was found in all tori samples from the harvesting process, presumably due to saliva contamination.


Tori bone was different from bone graft substitutes in terms of surface structure, crystallinity, and calcium release. However, tori bone and bone graft substitutes were similar in terms of elemental composition and crystal compounds, which may positively affect their clinical applications. Taken together, our findings suggest that with an effective decontamination, tori bone should be considered as a viable material for bone grafting, as it is not only practical but also cost-efficient for patients.

Keywords: Torus palatinus, Torus mandibularis, Biomaterials, Autogenous bone graft, Dental materials, X-Ray.