Changes of Radiographic Trabecular Bone Density and Peri-Implant Marginal Bone Vertical Dimensions Around Non-Submerged Dental Implants with a Laser-Microtextured Collar after 5 Years of Functional Loading.

Renzo Guarnieri1, Gabriele Miccoli1, Marco Seracchiani1, Maurilio D’Angelo1, Dario Di Nardo1, *, Luca Testarelli1
Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

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© 2020 Guarnieri et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral and Maxillo Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Caserta, 6 - 00161 Rome, Italy, Tel: +39 339 3935 527; Email:



The progressive peri-implant bone remodeling caused by dynamic cycles of microdamage may change peri-implant bone characteristics and volume after the functional loading.

This prospective study was designed to evaluate the radiographic trabecular bone density and peri-implant vertical dimensional changes around the non submerged dental implant with a laser-microtextured collar (NSLI)s after 5 years of functional loading.


Digital periapical radiographs of 58 NSLIs supported fixed single crowns and fixed partial dentures in 26 patients (14 men, mean age of 52 ± 3.8 years) were used for comparative evaluation between the implant placement [Baseline (BSL)], the definitive Crowns Delivery (CD) and the 5 years post-functional loading examination (T5). Regions of interest (ROI) were taken into consideration for the measurement of mean gray levels, standard deviation, and variation coefficient. The texture parameters, such as contrast, correlation, angular second moment and entropy, were investigated by using the software ImageJ (v.1.50i), by means of the Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) Texture Tool plugin. Vertical Peri-implant Marginal Bone Level (VPMBL) was assessed at the mesial and the distal sides of each implant by subtracting the measure at BSL from the measure at T5 by means of dedicate software (VixWin Platinum Imaging Software). Mixed regression models were adopted to analyze data. The possible effects of some variables, such as the use of provisional denture, location, crown/implant ratio, type of prosthetic design (single or splinted), on radiographic dimensional vertical changes, gray levels and texture analysis variables were also evaluated.


From BSL to T5, mesial and distal VPMBL showed a statistically significant gain of 0.9 ±0.5, and 0.10 mm ±0.6, respectively (P<0.05). From CD to T5, mean gray levels increased from 94.4±26.8) to 111.8±27.1 (P<0.05), while the coefficient of variation decreased from 0.08±0,03 to 0.05±0.04) (P<0.05). Variables showed no statistically significant correlation with texture parameters (P > 0.05).


NSLIs showed an increase in radiographic vertical peri-implant marginal bone levels and bone density up to 5 years of loading.

Keywords: Bone density, Texture analysis, Dental implants, Laser-microgrooved collar surface, Mixed regression models, Radiographs.