Several articles have suggested a potential synergistic relationship between periodontal disease and systemic inflammatory diseases, such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and diabetes mellitus. However, the associations between periodontal disease and PCOS population remain unclear in the literature.
The primary aim of this review is to examine the associations between periodontal disease and PCOS with different scoring methods, namely clinical attachment loss, probing depth, gingival index, percentage of bleeding on probing and plaque index.
MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched for observational studies and case-control studies from its inception until 2nd June, 2019. Case reports, case series, non-systematic reviews and trials published as abstracts were excluded.
Four articles (614 subjects) were included for analysis. Out of 614 subjects, 329 PCOS patients were compared to 285 healthy subjects. In comparison to healthy cohort, women with PCOS had a statistically significant increase in clinical attachment loss (MD: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.13-0.55, ρ=0.002), probing depth (MD: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.21-0.48, ρ<0.001), gingival index (MD: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.70-1.11, ρ<0.001) and percentage of bleeding on probing (MD: 34.41, 95% CI: 20.23-48.59, ρ<0.001). No difference was demonstrated in plaque index (MD: 0.42, 95% CI: -0.29-1.12, ρ=0.24) for both PCOS and healthy cohort.
PCOS is significantly associated with a higher severity of the periodontal disease. This association should be emphasized during the management of PCOS patients, by including referral to dentists or periodontists for regular mechanical debridement of plaque and periodontal maintenance.
Keywords: Gingivitis, Periodontitis, Periodontal disease, Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Stein Leventhal syndrome, Polycystic ovarian disease.