The Influence of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Irradiation on the Adhesive Bond Strength in Non-Demineralized and Demineralized Human Dentin: An In Vitro Study

Sandra Maria Imiolczyk1, *, Moritz Hertel2, Isabella Hase2, Sebastian Paris1, Uwe Blunck1, Stefan Hartwig3, Saskia Preissner1, *
1 Department of Operative and Preventive Dentistry, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Aßmannshauser Str. 4-6, 14197Berlin, Germany
2 Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Radiology and Oral Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Aßmannshauser Str. 4-6, 14197Berlin, Germany
3 Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Universitätsklinikum der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Hans-Nolte-Str. 1, 32429 Minden, Germany

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 316
Abstract HTML Views: 162
PDF Downloads: 79
ePub Downloads: 36
Total Views/Downloads: 593
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 189
Abstract HTML Views: 125
PDF Downloads: 69
ePub Downloads: 30
Total Views/Downloads: 413

Creative Commons License
© 2018 Imiolczyk et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Operative and Preventive Dentistry, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Aßmannshauser Str. 4-6, 14197 Berlin, Germany, Tel: +4930450562675, Fax: +4930450562932; E-mail:* Both authors contributed equally



While aiming at the use of Cold Atmospheric Plasmas (CAPs) in restorative dentistry, the present study intended to assess if plasma irradiation increases the Tensile Bond Strength (TBS) in non-demineralized and demineralized dentin.

Materials and Methods:

Forty-eight human dentin samples were assigned to three different treatment modalities: I: Plasma jet irradiation (CAP I); II: Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment (CAP II); and III: No plasma (control). In each group, half of the specimens had previously been demineralized. A fourth generation of adhesive and dental composite was applied to all of the samples. The testing of the TBS was performed after artificial aging.


In the non-demineralized dentin, the mean TBS values were significantly higher after using CAP II (16.95 MPa) than in the control samples (4.2 MPa; p = 0.001). Significantly higher TBS values were also obtained after irradiating the demineralized dentin with CAP I and CAP II (11.68 and 4.6 MPa) when compared to the control samples (0 MPa; p = 0.003 and 0.038). The differences between both of the plasma sources were only slightly significant (p = 0.05).


CAPs can potentially enhance the adhesive/dentin interfacial bonding strength, whereby the underlying effects seem to depend on the type of plasma source and the degree of dentinal (de-) mineralization. In the non-demineralized dentin, after a complete caries excavation, dielectric barrier discharge devices might be favorable over the plasma jets, in order to improve the adhesive/dentin interfacial bonding. In contrast, the plasma jets could be more effective in the demineralized dentin after an incomplete caries excavation.

Keywords: Tensile bond strength, Cold atmospheric plasma, Dentin adhesive, Restorative dentistry, Indirect plasma, Direct plasma.