Effect of Plasma of Argon Treated Implants on Bone Density: A Randomized, Controlled, Histomorphometric Study in Dogs

Kazushige Tanaka1, 3, Erick Ricardo Silva2, Shunsuke Kawakami1, Luigi Canullo3, Daniele Botticelli1, *, Samuel P. Xavier2
1 Department of Oral Implantology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka, Japan / ARDEC Academy, Rimini, Italy
2 Department of Cranial Traumatology and Buccal-Maxillo Facial surgery and Periodontology, FORP-USP- Faculty of Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil
3 ARDEC Academy, Ariminum Odontologica, Viale Giovanni Pascoli 67, 47923 Rimini (AR), Italy

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Creative Commons License
© 2018 Tanaka et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the ARDEC Academy, Ariminum Odontologica, Viale Giovanni Pascoli 67, 47923 Rimini (AR), Italy; Tel +39 0541 393444; E-mail:



Altering surface characteristics by increasing its energy and hydrophilicity will accelerate the interaction between cells and implant surface. Energy and hydrophilicity tend to disappear over a short time. The implant surface may be reactivated by the use of argon plasma


To assess bone density at cleaned and activated titanium implants using argon plasma.


Mandibular premolars and first molars were extracted bilaterally in eight Beagle dogs. After three months, four implants, two treated with argon plasma (test; plasma) and two left without treatment (control), were randomly installed in one side of the mandible. Abutments were applied on the implants and a non-submerged healing was allowed. After one month, the same surgical procedures were adopted on the opposite side of the mandible. The animals were euthanized after one month and ground sections representing the healing after 1 and 2 months were obtained for histological examination.


No statistically significant differences were found between test and control sites (p < 0.05). After 1 month of healing, new bone was 32.5 ± 12.2% and 33.8 ± 8.8% at the plasma and control sites, respectively. After 2 months, the respective values were 50.8 ± 21.5% and 47.6 ± 15.6%.


The treatment of the implant surface with argon plasma did not have a significant effect on bone density around implants.

Keywords: Osseointegration, Bone density, Dental implants, Plasma gases, Surface properties, Animals.