Effectiveness of S-PRG Filler-Containing Toothpaste in Inhibiting Demineralization of Human Tooth Surface

Bennett T. Amaechi1, Hariyali Kasundra1, Deepika Joshi1, Azadeh Abdollahi1, Parveez A. A. Azees1, Linda O. Okoye2, *
1 Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA
2 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry’ College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria

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Creative Commons License
© 2018 Amaechi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry’ College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria; Tel: +2348068424848; E-mail:



Using an established pH-cycling caries model, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of toothpastes containing Surface Pre-reacted Glass-ionomer filler (S-PRG) in preventing tooth surface demineralization.

Materials and Methods:

210 tooth blocks were randomly assigned to seven experimental groups (30 blocks/group): no treatment (A), and toothpaste containing either NaF (B), 0 wt% S-PRG (C), 1 wt% S-PRG (D), 5 wt% S-PRG (E), 20 wt% S-PRG (F) or 30 wt% S-PRG (G). Groups were subjected to 14-day demineralization for development of early caries lesions using a pH-cycling caries model. Demineralization was assessed using Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) and Transverse Microradiography (TMR). All pairwise contrasts (between treatments) were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and then Tukey’s HSD for multiple comparisons. All p-values are considered significant if <0.05.


With QLF, there was a significant (ANOVA; p<0.001) difference in mean percent fluorescence loss (∆F) observed among the groups. Relative to control, all S-PRG-containing toothpastes significantly (Tukey’s; p<0.0001) inhibited demineralization at varying percentages (48.6%, 61.3%, 67.4% and 69.8% reduction with S-PRG 1%, 5%, 20% and 30% respectively). Demineralization reduction was not significant with either NaF (15.6% reduction) or 0% S-PRG (-2.5% reduction i.e. 2.5% more demineralization than the Control) when compared to control group. Mineral loss assessed using TMR followed a similar trend as fluorescence loss.


Toothpaste containing S-PRG filler can serve as an effective caries control tool. S-PRG filler-containing dentifrice to be more effective in preventing tooth demineralization than 1100 ppm fluoride provided as sodium fluoride.

Keywords: Caries prevention, Fluoride, Ion-releasing, Surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler, Toothpaste, S-PRG filler, Dentifrice, Demineralization.