Shade Stability of Polymer-Infiltrated and Resin Nano Ceramics

Martin Gabriel Schürmann, Constanze Olms*
Department of Prosthodontics and Material Science, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr.12, 04103 Leipzig, Germany

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© 2018 Schürmann and Olms.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Prosthodontics and Material Science, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr.12, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; Tel: 03419721365; Fax: 03459721319; E-mail:



The esthetics plays an increasingly significant role in today's dentistry.


The objective was to investigate the shade stability of a polymer-infiltrated and a resin nano ceramic in comparison to a conventional feldspar ceramic and an acrylate polymer.


20 specimens of each of the materials, CAD-Temp (CT), Mark II (M), VITA Enamic (VE) and Lava Ultimate (LU), were prepared using the standard method. These were divided into groups (n=5) and placed in the following stain solutions: Distilled water, coffee, Coca-Cola and red wine for 14 days. The shade of each specimen was measured before and after using a spectrophotometer (n=5). The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p ≤ 0.05).


The largest ΔE mean values were observed in CT by Coca-Cola (4.38 ± 0.41), in M by coffee (5.95 ± 0.62), in VE (6.02 ± 0.78) and LU (8.61 ± 0.30) by red wine. LU had the largest and strongest overall shade differences (total score: SSC=16.95) and CT the least (SSC=8.74). Overall shade differences of VE (SSC=12.03) and M (SSC=12.48) were statistically indistinguishable. After 14 days, only Coca-Cola caused clinically relevant shade differences in CT (ΔE > 2.7); this was also caused by coffee, Coca-Cola and red wine in M and coffee and red wine in VE and LU.


On average, VE showed fewer shade differences than LU. After 14 days of immersion, shade differences which exceeded the clinical acceptance threshold of ΔE=2.7 were shown by CT in Coca-Cola, by M in coffee, Coca-Cola and red wine, and by VE and LU in coffee and red wine.

Keywords: Shade stability, Polymer-infiltrated ceramic, Resin nano ceramic, Spectrophotometer, VITA Easyshade, VITA Enamic, Lava Ultimate.