The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of “subluxation” and presence of clinical signs of Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMD) in asymptomatic individuals and its distribution according to age and sex.
Materials and Methods:
The material investigated comprised of 200 asymptomatic subjects with 400 joints. The subjects were divided into two groups of 18-25 years and 50-60 years of age consisting of equal number of males and females. Clinical examination involved measurement of maximal inter-incisal distance, joint sounds and deviation. For radiological examination, Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) open mouth close mouth view option (TMJ1/2) was used on a Digital Panoramic Machine. All the radiographs were traced to assess subluxation and anterior translation of the condyle. The statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, version 15.0 for Windows).
The prevalence of the signs of TMDs in the asymptomatic population was found to be very high and more predominant in females as compared to males. Furthermore, the older age group had comparatively less signs of TMDs. It was of interest that the subjects presenting with clinical signs of TMD were significantly less as compared to the subjects presenting with subluxation. The value of anterior translation was found to be more in females in the younger age group as compared to the males. Similarly, it was more in males as compared to females in older age group. But the mean anterior translation difference in females in 18-25 years and 50-60 years showed a statistically significant difference with P-value 0.017.
Subluxation is a very common feature found in almost all the subjects in this study with a high prevalence. Hence, we may assume that the increased incidence of TMDs could be a direct result of the phenomena of subluxation. The decrease in mandibular length could be the cause of decreased mouth opening and increased subluxation.
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Open-Access License: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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