Factors Associated to Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment

João Dalto Viganó Pastro, Adriana Cândida Albuquerque Nogueira, Karina Maria Salvatore de Freitas*, Fabricio Pinelli Valarelli, Rodrigo Hermont Cançado, Renata Cristina Gobbi de Oliveira, Ricardo Cesar Gobbi de Oliveira
Department of Orthodontics, Uningá University Center, Maringá, Brazil

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© 2018 Pastro et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Orthodontics, Uningá University Center, Rod 317, n.6114, Maringa, Brazil; Tel: 5514991026446 / 551432276952, E-mail:



The aim of this study was to assess the possible factors associated to root resorption, common to daily clinical orthodontics, especially parafunctional habits.


A retrospective study of 600 patients (308 females and 292 males) previously treated orthodontically was conducted. The sample was divided into two groups related to the degree of root resorption at the ending of treatment according to Malmgren. Group 1 comprised 507 patients with a mean initial age of 14.21 years and who had absent or mild final external root resorption, characterized by grades 0, 1 and 2 of root resorption; Group 2 comprised 93 patients with initial mean age of 14.57 years and who had moderate or severe root resorption, characterized by grade 3 and 4. The groups were then compared in terms of age at the beginning and ending of the treatment, treatment time, gender, type of treatment (with and without extractions), parafunctional habits (bruxism, onychophagia, the habit of biting objects, tongue thrusting habit and thumb sucking habit), allergies and pretreatment root resorption.


The results show that the initial age, gender, type of malocclusion, parafunctional habits and allergies do not represent a statistically significant risk of root resorption.


Treatment time and type (with and without extractions) and the presence of external root resorption at the beginning of the treatment showed significant differences.

Keywords: Root resorption, Bruxism, Orthodontics, Thumb sucking habit, Tongue thrusting habit, Onychophagia.