Role of Sinonasal Anatomic Variations in the Development of Maxillary Sinusitis: A Cone Beam CT Analysis

Leila Khojastepour1, *, Abdolaziz Haghnegahdar1, Negar Khosravifard2
1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical sciences, Rasht, Iran.

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© 2017 Khojastepour et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical science, Shiraz, Iran, Tel: +98-9173158331, E-mail:



Several anatomical variations can lead to the inflammation of the paranasal sinuses; therefore, surgeons should be familiar with these variations and their impacts on the status of the paranasal sinuses.


The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Haller cells and its association with patients’ sex and age. Furthermore, the relationships between the presence and size of Haller cells, deviation of the uncinate process and size of the maxillary sinus ostium with the occurrence of maxillary sinusitis were investigated.

Materials/ Patients and Methods:

120 coronal CBCT images were retrieved and analyzed. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by means of Mann - Whitney, χ2 and T tests.


There were statistically significant associations between the presence and surface area of Haller cells and the occurrence of ipsilateral maxillary sinusitis. Neither the angulation of the uncinate process nor the size of the maxillary sinus ostium significantly correlates with the formation of maxillary sinusitis.


Haller cells can interfere with the normal drainage of the maxillary sinus and result in sinusitis. In contrast, diameter of the sinus ostium and deviation of the uncinate process do not influence the inflammatory status of the maxillary sinus significantly.

Keywords: Haller cells, Uncinate process, Maxillary sinus ostium, Maxillary sinusitis, Cone beam CT.