Prevalence of the Short Face Pattern in Individuals of Bauru-Brazil



Douglas Rezende Bastos, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira Conti*, Leopoldino Capelozza Filho, Renata Rodrigues de Almeida-Pedrin, Maurício de Almeida Cardoso
Department of Orthodontics, Sagrado Coração University, Bauru, Brazil


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© Bastos et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Orthodontics, Sagrado Coração University, Rua Irmã Arminda, 10-50 – Jardim, Zip Code: 17011-170 Bauru/SP Brazil; Tel: +5514997957795; E-mails: accfconti@uol.com.br, accfconti@hotmail.com


Abstract

Aim:

This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and severity of short face pattern in ethnically different individuals.

Material and Methods:

The sample comprised 4,409 Brazilians (2,192 females and 2,217 males), with a mean age of 13 years, enrolled in secondary schools in the municipality of Bauru. The sample inclusion criteria involved subjects with vertically impaired facial relationship based on excessive lip compression, when standing at natural head position, with the lips at rest. Once short face syndrome had been identified, the individuals were classified into three severity subtypes: mild, moderate, and severe. The sample was then stratified by ethnic background as White (Caucasoid), Black (African descent), Brown (mixed Caucasian–African descent), Yellow (Asian descent), and Brazilian Indian (Native Brazilian descent), using the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification. The chi-square test at the 5% significance level was used to compare frequency ratios of individuals with vertically impaired facial relationships and across different ethnicities, according to severity.

Results:

The prevalence of short face pattern was 3.15%, as 1.11%, 1.99%, and 0.02% considered mild, moderate and severe subtypes, respectively. The severe subtype was rare (0.02%) and found only in one White individual. The White group had the highest relative frequency (45.53%) of the moderate subtype, followed by Brown individuals (43.40%). In the mild subtype, Yellow (68.08%) and White (62.21%) individuals showed similar and higher relative frequency values.

Conclusion:

The prevalence of short face pattern was 3.15%, and White individuals had the highest prevalence.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Orthodontics, Malocclusion, Frequency of short face pattern, Excessive lip compression.