Gender Differences in Periodontal Status and Oral Hygiene of Non-Diabetic and Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Antina Schulze*, Martin Busse
General Outpatient Ambulance and Sports Dentistry of the Institute of Sports Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 427
Abstract HTML Views: 134
PDF Downloads: 56
ePub Downloads: 33
Total Views/Downloads: 650
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 230
Abstract HTML Views: 99
PDF Downloads: 49
ePub Downloads: 29
Total Views/Downloads: 407

Creative Commons License
© Schulze and Busse; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Institute of Sports Medicine, University of Leipzig, Marschnerstrasse 29 a 04109, Leipzig, Germany; Tel: +493419731741; Fax: +493419731689; E-mail:



This study investigated gender dependent differences by the comparison of periodontal status and oral hygiene between diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects.


517 mostly obese subjects (171 non-diabetic, 205 type 2 diabetic with oral and 141 with insulin therapy; mean: 59 years) completed an oral hygiene questionnaire and had a clinical examination, including periodontal screening and recording (PSR), percentage of bleeding teeth (PBT), probing pocket depth (PD), gingivitis index (GI), and number of teeth (Tn). Main parameters were “periodontitis” and “oral hygiene behaviour”, each defined by 5 sub-parameters. For a comparison of all results, each sub-parameter was set 0.2. The “low performance index“ (LoP) was the sum of significantly worse sub-parameters in the compared groups (maximum of low performing = 1.0).


Gender comparison: In non-diabetic and diabetic patients with oral medication, males performed worse (LoP: periodontitis 0.6 - 0.8; oral hygiene 0.4 - 0.6). The male insulin group performed worse oral hygiene (LoP: 0.4) than females with insulin therapy, whereas the periodontal status showed no difference.

Diabetic and non-diabetic groups: Females: Diabetic groups performed worse than non-diabetics (LoP: periodontitis 0.2 - 1.0; oral hygiene 0.4). Insulin patients had worse periodontal status and showed no difference in oral hygiene when compared to diabetic patients with oral medication (LoP: 0.2). Males: Diabetic group with oral medication had worse periodontal status than non-diabetics (LoP: 0.6).


The periodontal status was mainly due to oral hygiene behaviour, which was worse in men. Apparently behaviour and not diabetes is the major determinant of periodontitis. Men apparently need much more advise than women.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Gender, Oral hygiene, Periodontal disease.