Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

George Litsas*
Orthodontist 2, Venizelou Str. Kozani, Greece

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© George Litsas; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Orthodontist 2, Venizelou Str. Kozani, Greece; Tel: +30 24610 40087; Fax: +30 24610 41075; E-mail:


Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling, muscle enhancement and tooth development. In this paper the influence of growth hormone on oral tissues is reviewed.

Keywords: Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, Growth Hormone Receptor.