Obesity and Periodontal Disease: A Narrative Review on Current Evidence and Putative Molecular Links



Federica Di Spirito1, *, Ludovico Sbordone2, Vincenzo Pilone3, Francesco D’Ambrosio4
1 Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Schola Medica Salernitana”, School of Dentistry, University of Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi, Salerno, Italy / Complex Operating Unit of Odontostomatology, Head and Neck Clinical Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona, Salerno, Italy
2 Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Schola Medica Salernitana”, School of Dentistry, University of Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Salerno), Italy, / Complex Operating Unit of Odontostomatology, Head and Neck Clinical Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona, Salerno, Italy
3 Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Schola Medica Salernitana”, University of Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Salerno), Italy, / Complex Operating Unit of General Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona, Salerno, Italy
4 Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Schola Medica Salernitana”, Doctorate School, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy / Complex Operating Unit of Odontostomatology, Head and Neck Clinical Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona, Salerno, Italy

Abstract

Background:

Obesity represents one of the main health problems worldwide and is considered a risk factor for several diseases, including periodontitis, which is a microbially-associated inflammatory disease affecting the tooth-supporting structures.

Objective:

The aim of this review was to report the current direct and indirect evidence concerning the possible association between obesity and periodontitis and their putative molecular links.

Methods:

A literature search was conducted between January 1999 and September 2019, in PubMed/MEDLINE and Science Direct databases, using pertinent keyword combined by Boolean operators. Through a multi-step screening process (literature search; articles title and abstract evaluation and full-text reading), studies fitting inclusion/exclusion criteria were considered for the review.

Results:

35 studies were included in the present review (17 observational studies; 7 systematic reviews; 11 systematic reviews with meta-analysis), focusing on the direct and indirect evidence of the possible association between obesity and periodontitis and their potential etiopathogenic molecular links

Conclusion:

Although the majority of the studies reported a positive association between obesity and periodontitis, the heterogeneity of the classification criteria and of the clinical parameters employed in the studies for both obesity and periodontitis evaluation, complicated the comparison of the results, thus considered inconclusive. Although several putative molecular pathogenic links between obesity and periodontitis have been highlighted, further studies, with longer follow-ups and with homogeneous clinical criteria, are needed to better understand the putative relation between obesity and periodontal disease.

Keywords: Obesity, Periodontal disease, Overweight, Periodontitis, Adipokines, Cytokines.


Abstract Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
Publisher Item Identifier: EA-TODENTJ-2019-79

Article History:

Received Date: 09/08/2019
Revision Received Date: 17/10/2019
Acceptance Date: 21/11/2019
Electronic publication date: 30/12/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Di Spirito et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Schola Medica Salernitana”, School of Dentistry, University of Salerno, Via S. Allende; 84081 Baronissi (Salerno), Italy; Tel: +39 333 2604350; Fax: +39 089 968811; E-mail: dispiritof@yahoo.it