Wind Instrumenta list Embouchure and the Applied Forces on the Perioral Structures

Miguel Pais Clemente1, *, André Moreira1, Joaquim Mendes2, Afonso Pinhão Ferreira3, José Manuel Amarante4
1 Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, PortoPortugal
2 Labiomep, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, PortoPortugal
3 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
4 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal



The wind instrumentalist embouchure is probably one of the more demanding phenomena that occurs during their musical performance. It is important to quantify the forces that are applied during the wind instrumentalist embouchure on the perioral structures.


Quantify the pressures on the perioral structures involved during the embouchure mechanism of wind instrumentalists


Piezoresistive sensors of FlexiForceTM were placed on the mouthpiece of 30 different wind instrumentalists. During nine musical performances, the pressure applied on the mouthpiece was converted into a voltage output that was observed with a LabVIEW 2011 Carrier. Later the data was organized in tables of medium and maximum values for the different groups of wind instruments.


In ascending order of pressures registered the bassoon (6g-31g), the oboe (17g-125g), the saxophone (39g-120g), the clarinet (54g-106g), the trumpet, (63g-172g), the bisel flute (73g-245g), the French horn (56g-305g), the transversal flute (220g-305g) and the trombone (201g-325g).


Brass musicians seem to apply greater forces than woodwind musicians to realize the embouchure mechanism for the same music play. The piezoresistive sensors showed to be an accurate and non-invasive tool to quantify the embouchure pressures.

Keywords: Embouchure, Piezoresistive sensors, Perioral pressure, Wind instrumentalists, Dentistry, Musculoskeletal system.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
Publisher Item Identifier: EA-TODENTJ-2018-137

Article History:

Received Date: 30/11/2018
Revision Received Date: 14/01/2019
Acceptance Date: 09/02/2019
Electronic publication date: 20/02/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Clemente et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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